|In searches of an ancestor|
In this paper I connect names of the known peoples such as Avars and Magyars with Kavars, and also name of such cities as Kovarska in Czechia, Kovary in Poland, Covasna in Romania, Kavarskas in Lithuania with a surname of my ancestors from Lithuania. Thus I go on 1500 deep into histories.
In place of the modern town Kavarskas, in the 15th century in Lithuania there was Mazieji Pienionys (Small Pienionys) estate. At the end of 15th century Grand Duke of Lithuania Alexander Jagiellon transferred the estate to Stanislovas Kovarskis, the treasurer of the king. As he has no successors, the estate was inherited by his brother, Andrius Kovarskis, the canon of the Vilnius Cathedral. Thus the Small Pienionys estate was started to call Kavarskas. In written sources Kavarskas was first mentioned in 1538. Why king has entrusted they to manage the state? Are they friends or far relatives with Alexander Jagiellon?
Alexander Jagiellon 1461 –1506, Grand Duke of Lithuania and later King of Poland. He was elected Grand Duke of Lithuania 1492 and King of Poland on the death of his brother Jan I Olbracht (1501). Alexander Jagiellon’s mother was Elisabeth of Austria (1437 – 1505) and grandmother was Elizabeth II of Bohemia (1409 – 1442) - the daughter of Sigismund (1368 – 1437), Holy Roman Emperor (1433-1437). Elisabeth II was daughter the second wife of Sigismund's. She was also a descendant of Arpads of Hungary, through her great-grandmother Elisabeth I of Bohemia, who herself was granddaughter of Kunguta Rostislavna of Halicia, whose mother Anna was a daughter of King Bela IV of Hungary and Croatia between 1235 and 1270 and member of Arpad dynasty. We shall see further that Kovars had the direct relation to Arpad too. Probably they came in Lithuania from places of Europe in 1490.
The Arpad dynasty was a dynasty ruling in historic Hungary from the late 9th century to 1301. Arpad was the founder of the dynasty brought the proto-Hungarians to present-day Hungary in 896. According to Simon of Keza, a medieval Hungarian chronicler, Arpad descended from the Turul clan. Turul is the mythological bird of the origin myth of the Magyars (Hungarian people). The Turul is probably a large falcon, and the origin of the word is most likely Turkish. Before a fortress of Bendery in the Republica Moldova is a monument of this bird. My childhood has passed there. It means there were my ancestors magyars. The word "Hungarian" is thought to be derived from the Bulgar-Turkic Onogur, possibly because the Magyars were neighbours (or confederates) of the Empire of the Onogurs in the sixth century, whose leading tribal union was called the "Onogurs" (meaning "ten tribes"). In the 9th century they were based on the lower Don, ranging over the steppes to the west of that river. They then comprised a federation of hordes, or tribes, each under a hereditary chieftain and each composed of a varying number of clans, the members of which shared a real or imagined blood kinship. All clan members were free, but the community included slaves taken in battle or in raids. There were seven tribes and three tribes of Turkic Khazars which name was the Kavars. So I think the 30% of Magyars are Kavars.
Let's discuss four documents in which is spoken about Kavars which have left from khazars in 850. In 890 they were already on Danube. It clears up many historical questions.
1. The first document is the well known book “On Administering the Empire” of Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus.
He writes about it: «It will be known that so-called kavary have taken place from khazars. Happened so, that in 799-843 or 850 begin the revolt of khazars against the authority, but the revolt was suppressed. The rebels (kavars) having run and were united with the people of tribes: Neki, Megeri, Kurtugermat, Tarian, Gene, Kari, Kasi. So, mixing up with each other, kavars together with the turkish people began to live in territory of Расinасае (Pechenegi). These eight tribes do not submit own (special) leaders (archonts), but have the agreement to battle together, with diligence on the rivers in what to the party there was a war. The first main leader of all tribes is the leader from the Arpad dynasty consistently and two others “gilu” and “karchu” which have a rank of the judge. It will be known that the Arpad had four sons: the first Tarkazusa, the second Ielecha, the third Iutozus, the fourth Zaltas. It will be known that the first Tarkazusa had one son Tevelis, the second Ielecha had one son Ezelech, the third Iutozus had a son Falizis and fourth Zaltas had one son Taksis. It will be known that all sons of Arpad have died. The grandsons Falizis, Taksis and son of Tevelis which name is Termazus are alive».
Three clans of khazars named as Kavars probably or probably seven turkish clans Neki, Megeri, Kurtugermat, Tarian, Gene, Kari, Kasi concerned with the origin myth of the Magyars Turul . Probably this myth concerned to all to ten clans together. I shall remind that Magyars (Kavars) occupied only one part territory of Расinасае (Pechenegi), on the lower Don between the town Itil of khazar and Kiev at 799-843 or 850. Then they have left on west and in 890 they were already on Danube. There are three periods in history of Khazar:
Hazer's army was annihilated at Itil in 737 AD and the Caliphate imposed Islam upon the Khazars. The city Itil was on distance of 40 kilometers from present russian town Astrahani. During the Bulanid dynasty state religion of khazars became Judaism and the Jewish religion became widespread among the population. The date of the actual conversion to Judaism is a matter of some controversy. According to Yehuda Halevi in Kuzari, it occurred around 740 AD, because nevertheless the Caliphs could not adequately garrison Khazaria in 737 and within a few years the Khazars were once again independent. Some Arab sources point to a date closer to the end of the 700s or early 800s.More recent scholars postulated that 861 AD, the date of St. Cyril's visit to Khazaria, was the year of the conversion to Judaism.It means that the Kavars have not accepted Jewish religion because the revolt was in 850. I do not know as it was, but me seemed that Magyars (Kavars) were connected with Avars.
2. The second document is The Primary Chronicle (Old-Slavonic: Povest vremennykh let; Tale of Bygone Years). From information of this document a Varangian (Varyag, Viking) named Rurik was selected as common ruler by several Slavic and Finno-Ugric tribes in about 860 in Novgorod before moving south and extending his authority to Kiev. Askold Dir – another one (or two like Askold and Dir) of Rurik's men who ruled Kiev in the 870s. Kievan Rus was founded by prince Oleg (Helgu in Khazarian records) about 880 when Oleg attacked and conquered Kiev around 882. Against whom (khazars or others) was a war? Whether could somebody in Kiev ask military help from Magyar? Oleg died in 913. The prince Igor, the son of Rurik, ruled from 913 until his murder in 944. As is written in the "A word about shelf of Igor": “The single combat of prince Vsevolod characterizes bravery of russian. As the hero of an Illiada he (Vsevolod) sparkles with the gold helmet and beats on “helmets of ovars””. Despite of it in a basis of document "A word about shelf of Igor" the campaign of conducted by prince Igor was a unsuccessful.
Probably the writer has no mixed one people “ovars” with others because everyone should remember Avars in Europe which leader was Bayan I 300 years ago (600). The same name Bayan is a the story-teller of the "A word about shelf of Igor". I think the Avars could come from the South of the Europe to return there from the East. Those of khazars who has jointed with the Avars could to name Kavars. Therefore among Kavars there could be people accepted Jewish religion, but it is improbable. The Magyars (Kavars) owned territory between Turkey and Kiev from 850 (year of the revolt) – the time of Arpad, Rurik, Askold Dir, Oleg and Igor). Around 833 AD the Magyars were living in Levedia between the Don and the Dnieper. Toward 850 or 860, driven from Levedia by the Petcheneg Turks, they entered Atelkuzu (Etelkoz). The exact location of Etelkoz is disputed. I thnk it can be one of places similar to delta of Volga for example modern cities Izmail or Vilkovo. May be it can be city Bender. "Etel" could stand for the river Volga (Etil or Itil means Volga). According to Hungarian tradition, Etelkoz was located between the river Volga and the lower Danube. Magyars reached the Danube delta around 880 in the time when Oleg attacked and conquered Kiev. Therefore with Igor could be at war no Magyars but their friends Avars.
After Igor's death between wars the way from Kiev to the Mediterranean sea or to the Constantinopol was friendly for the Saint Olga (Olga the Beauty), the widow of Igor, ruled Kievan Rus as regent (945-c. 963) for their son, Svyatoslav. She was the first Rus ruler to convert to Christianity in 945 – 957 by Constantine VII influence. Between 965 and 969 sovereignty of Khazar khaganate which was in a southeast from Kiev was broken by Sviatoslav. After the death Sviatoslav I in 972 and after defeating his half-brother Yaropolk in 980 the son of Sviatoslav I the Sant Vladimir I rose to power in Kiev 978-1015. As Prince of Kiev, Vladimir's most notable achievement was the Christianization of Kievan Rus, a process that began in 988.
3. The third document is the well known document named as “The Kievian Letter” or “The Schechter Letter” was discovered in 1962 during a survey of the Geniza documents by Norman Golb of the University of Chicago. The letter, a Hebrew-language recommendation written on behalf of one member of their community, was part of an enormous collection brought to Cambridge by Solomon Schechter from the Cairo Geniza. One signature of this letter consists of names “GWSTT (Gostata) bar KYBR (Kiabar) Kohen Samson”.
Definition of the date of this document is very important for history. I think that the date is at the time of Oleg before 882. I think there it is a question not of money but the military help. The letter have found in Egypt. Why so it is far? Direction on the South from Kiev. There was a direction of possible help. Was impossible to find the money more close to Kiev about what officially there is a speech in this letter? Was KYBR (Kiabar) one of “kovars’ before time of Rurik or after time of Igor 944?
The well known legend of Kyi, Schek and Khoryv, and their sister Lybid were founders of Kiev up to Rurik. Whether Kyi could have a name KYBR (Kiabar) ?
4. The fourth document is the Khazar Correspondence in the 950s or 960s between Hasdai ibn Shaprut, foreign secretary to the Caliph of Cordoba, and Joseph, Khagan of the Khazars. It is one of the few documents known to have been authored by a Khazar, and one of the very few primary sources on Khazar history. In King Joseph's Reply, the Khazar monarch writes: "You ask us also in your epistle: "Of what people, of what family, and of what tribe are you?" Know that we are descended from Japhet, through his son Togarmah. I have found in the genealogical books of my ancestors that Togarmah had ten sons. These are their names: the eldest was Ujur, the second Tauris, the third Avar, the fourth Uauz, the fifth Bizal, the sixth Tarna, the seventh Khazar, the eighth Janur, the ninth Bulgar, the tenth Sawir."
Discussion #4. Similar in turkish language 1. Agior 2. Tirosz 3. Avor 4. Ugin 5. Bizel 6. Tarna 7. Kazar 8. Zagur 9. Balgor 10. Szavvir (szabir). Let's notice that turkish and khazar genealogical books there are both the Avar and the Khazar as the brothers. In Arabic records, Togorma's tribes are these: 1. Khazar 2. Badsanag 3. Asz-alan 4. Bulghar 5. Zabub 6. Fitrakh (Kotrakh?) 7. Nabir 8. Andsar (Ajhar) 9. Talmisz 10. Adzigher. The Arabic account also adds an 11th clan: Anszuh. Joszef Ben-Gorion: "Tugarma's ten clans are these: 1. Kozar 2. Pacinak 3. Aliqanosz 4. Bulgar 5. Ragbiga (Ragbina, Ranbona) 6. Turqi 7. Buz 8. Zabuk 9. Ungari 10. Tilmac (Tilmic)."According to Khazar tradition as related in the Khazar Correspondence, Kozar was the name of the eponymous ancestor of the Khazar people. These are the ten mythical founders of tribes that once lived in the neighborhood of the Black and Caspian Seas. Japheth was one of the sons of Noah in the Bible. Japheth is commonly believed to be the father of the European. Noah's children are: Ham, forefather of the southern peoples; Shem, forefather of the middle peoples; Japheth, forefather of the northern peoples The first generation of descendants is given as: The sons of Ham: Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan. The sons of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud and Aram. The sons of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech and Tiras. Therefore there are both sons of Gomer the Ashkenaz and the Togarmah which concern Europeans.
When the Magyar tribes came into Pannonia, they believed that they had special rights to that land as an inheritance from Attila, since the Huns and Magyars were related tribes. Now I shall tell about the state of Avars which has disappeared in that time when the events connected with Magyars developed.
There are several popular points of origin suggested for the Avar peoples. East Asian Mongol or Turkic people living north of the Great Wall, known to the Chinese as the Rouran. The Hindu Kush, around present-day Kabul – associated with the Rouran, Uar and Hephthalites
Perhaps a suitable synthesis of these ideas may be that they were originally inhabitants of Khwarezmia, and had thus influence in all three areas. According to Biruni the area was ruled by the Afrigid dynasty from the 4th century to the 8th century AD. The resurgent kingdom was established around Khiva in 410 by Avar tribes possibly under Hephthalites influence. Khiva is the former capital of Khwarezmia and the Khanate of Khiva and lies in the present-day Khorezm Province of Uzbekistan. Gokturks encouraged the Byzantines to regard the Avar people (associated with the Uyghurs?) who entered Europe as Pseudo-Avars. If the Avars were ever a distinct ethnic group, that distinction does not seem to have survived their centuries in Europe. Being an 'Avar' seems to have meant being part of the Avar state (in a similar way that being 'Roman' ceased to have any ethnic meaning). The Avars were driven westward when the Sassanid Persians – allied with the Gokturks –defeated the Hephthalites in the 550s and the 560s. Kandik was an Avar khagan between 554 and 562. He led his people as refugees away from the Turks and approached Sarosios to mediate for him with Byzanteum in 557. The Eastern Hunno-Bulgars that his people conquered became known as Kutrigurs. They entered Europe in the 6th century A.D., subjugating peoples such as the Kutrigur Huns as they went. Their first recorded official contact with the Roman world was in the winter of 558/59, when their embassy arrived in Constantinople and negotiated a treaty by which they were to subdue unruly gentes on behalf of the Empire, and receive payments and rights in return. Having been bought off by the Eastern Emperor Justinian I, they pushed north into Germany (as Attila the Hun had done a century before), eventually reaching as far north as the Baltic.
Bayan I was an Avar khagan between 562 and 602. As the Gokturk Empire expanded westwards, Bayan Khagan led a group of Avars and Bulgars out of their reach, eventually settling in Pannonia in 568. Pannonia is an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. Pannonia was located mostly over the territory of the present-day western-half of Hungary with small parts in: Austria, Croatia, Serbia, Slovenia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 626, the Avars and the Persians jointly besieged but failed to capture Constantinople. Following this defeat, the Avars retreated to Pannonia, leaving most of the Balkans in the hands of Slav tribes, with neither Avars nor Byzantines able to reassert control. Most of the Avars subject peoples became independent, with just Pannonia remaining under direct Avar rule. In 798 in Salzburg the episcopacy, preached to avars Christian religion has been founded. In 805 Avar khagan has accepted new belief itself. By the early 9th century, internal discord and external pressure started to undermine the Avar state. It was finally liquidated during the 810s by the Franks under Charlemagne and the First Bulgarian Empire under Krum.
After the fall of the Avar Empire around 800 the name Avar and the self-identified constructed ethnicity it carried disappeared within a single generation. An Avar presence in Pannonia is still certain in 871 but thereafter the name is no longer used by chroniclers: "It simply proved impossible to keep up an Avar identity after Avar institutions and the high claims of their tradition had failed. The Avars are also likely to have merged with Slavs, who had formed new states in the region: the principality of Nitra in the north (later Great Moravia) and the Balaton Principality in the central parts of Pannonia. Their remnants were probably the Huns encountered by the invading Magyars in the 10th Century. Their hypothetical descendants, the Szekler people who apparently preserved the Avar Dragon Totem well into the 15th century, were relocated to Transylvania in the 12th century. In the Republic of Hungary there are a number of Avar ruins, mostly burial mounds, that display symbols nearly identical to those of the Caucasian Avars. The Szekler people (Hungarian: Szekely, Romanian: Secui, German: Szekler, Latin: Sicul), are a Hungarian speaking ethnic group mostly living in the counties of Harghita, Covasna and Mures in Romania, with a significant population also living in Tolna, Hungary. The Szekely have historically claimed descent from Attila's Huns, and feel that they played a special role in shaping Hungary. Szekely people adhere proudly to their Hungarian identity. (on materials of www.Wikipedia.com )